What Are Cryptocurrencies? A Quick Guide for Beginners

What Are Cryptocurrencies? The Ultimate Beginners Guide to digital currencies

What are cryptocurrencies? If you’re new to the world of bitcoin, Ethereum, altcoins, crypto mining, and digital currencies as a whole, then this guide is for you.

Cryptocurrency (crypto) is a digital currency system that uses cryptography. It is analogous to solving complicated mathematical problems in that it makes use of encryption and cryptography methods to confirm and protect transactions on a shared ledger such as a blockchain.

The ability to trade cryptocurrencies for one another as well as for fiat currencies such as the United States dollar is available. They are not, however, supported by governments and are not considered legal tender.

So, if you’re asking the question “what are cryptocurrencies”, then in this guide you’ll learn how cryptocurrency works, how it came to be, and what you should know before you invest in these digital currencies.

What Are Cryptocurrencies? Definition and Examples

Cryptocurrency (or “crypto”) is a peer-to-peer system that allows anyone, from anywhere, to send and receive money with relative ease. Unlike traditional payment systems, which rely on banks to validate transactions, cryptocurrency does not rely on banks to verify transactions.

Instead of being tangible money that can be carried about and exchanged in the real world, cryptocurrency payments exist solely as digital records in an online database recording specific transactions, similar to how credit cards work.

Transactions involving cryptocurrency funds are recorded in a public ledger when they are made through a cryptocurrency exchange. Cryptocurrency wallets are used to hold digital cash.

The term “cryptocurrency” was coined because transactions in cryptocurrency are verified through the use of encryption. In other words, specialized coding is required for the storage and transmission of bitcoin data between wallets as well as between wallets and public ledgers. The purpose of encryption is to ensure the security and safety of data.

Bitcoin was the first cryptocurrency, having been created in 2009 and remaining the most well-known to this day. Much of the interest in cryptocurrencies is driven by the desire to make a profit, with speculators driving prices up to dizzying heights at times.

A cryptocurrency is a form of digital money that is decentralized and based on blockchain technology. Although you may be aware of the two well-known cryptocurrencies, Bitcoin and Ethereum, there are more than 5,000 distinct types of cryptocurrencies in existence.

Related: Top 10 Most popular cryptocurrencies in the world

Cryptocurrency is a digital money system that is based on a distributed ledger technology (blockchain).

What are cryptocurrencies

Alternative names for digital currency include electronic currency, electronic money, and electronic money.

Wei Dai was the first person to mention the concept of cryptocurrency, which was in 1998. Dai discussed the possibility of creating and transacting with a new kind of money through cryptography rather than relying on a central authority to do it.

Cryptocurrencies, including Bitcoin, the oldest and most well-known, are the first real manifestations of the concept. Bitcoin was first launched in 2009 through a white paper written by Satoshi Nakamoto, who claimed to be the creator of the cryptocurrency.

While the identity of Satoshi Nakamoto remains a mystery, the concept of a digital, decentralized, and secure payment system that is not reliant on banks and other financial organizations has gained widespread acceptance.

When asked what are cryptocurrencies, you could simply say they are digital currencies like Ethereum, XRP, and Litecoin which are among the most well-known digital assets.

Related: How to be a cryptocurrency trader – 12 tips

Cryptocurrency Examples

According to CoinMarketCap, there are more than 13,000 cryptocurrencies with a total market capitalization of more than $2.73 trillion that are traded on 425 exchanges around the world.

Some of the most well-known are as follows:


Bitcoin, which was created in 2009 and is today the most widely traded cryptocurrency, was the first cryptocurrency.

Developed by Satoshi Nakamoto, who is widely thought to be a pseudonym for an individual or group of people whose precise identity remains unknown, bitcoin is a widely accepted form of payment.


Ethereum, which was created in 2015, is a blockchain platform that also has its own money, known as Ether (ETH) or Ethereum. After Bitcoin, it is the second most widely used cryptocurrency.


Despite the fact that it is most comparable to bitcoin, this currency has moved more quickly to develop new innovations, such as speedier payments and processes that enable more transactions to be processed.


Ripple is a distributed ledger technology that was first introduced in 2012 and is still in use today. Ripple may be used to track a variety of various types of transactions, not only cryptocurrency transactions. The business that created it has collaborated with a number of different banks and financial organizations.

Non-Bitcoin cryptocurrencies are collectively referred to as “altcoins” in order to separate them from the original Bitcoin cryptocurrency.

Blockchain is a public ledger where every transaction is validated and secured by computers or nodes that use cryptocurrencies to do the verification and security.

Related: Top 10 Best Apps for Crypto Trading In Nigeria

How Does Cryptocurrency Works?

A straightforward bitcoin transaction is the transfer of funds from one person to another. Cryptocurrencies are maintained in virtual “wallets,” and transfers are made from one wallet to another using a digital signature.

How does cryptocurrencies work

Cryptocurrency transactions are all identified by a unique cryptographic signature, which is recorded in a permanent manner on the blockchain.

Related: Best Bitcoin wallets for Android devices

Each wallet is associated with both a public and a private key pair. The public key is used to generate an address for your wallet, which will let you receive cryptocurrency from other people.

When used in conjunction with a wallet, a private key provides you with the cryptographic signature that is used to help validate bitcoin transactions.

Consider the example of Joe sending one Ethereum (1ETH) to Jessica. One Ethereum (1ETH) is removed from Joe’s wallet and added to Jessica’s wallet.

The transaction would be represented by a piece of code that would contain information such as the recipient’s address, the sender’s signature, and the amount of cryptocurrency to be transferred, among other things. Once completed, this transaction would be broadcast to the Ethereum network, where it could be validated or mined.

These requests are received by computers connected to networks all around the world, which are then bundled together in what is known as a block.

The authenticity of all of the transactions in the block is then verified by these machines, which do so by solving complicated cryptographic challenges.

Once a block has been validated or mined, it is uploaded to the blockchain and becomes permanent. The miner or the computer, who completes this task is compensated for his or her efforts.

What is the best way to purchase cryptocurrency?

Some of you may be asking how to acquire cryptocurrencies in a secure manner. Typically, there are three steps to complete the process:

Step 1: Selecting a platform

The initial step is to choose which platform will be utilized. In general, you can select between a regular broker and a cryptocurrency exchange that specializes in cryptocurrencies:

  • Brokers who operate in the traditional manner.

These are online brokers who provide access to purchase and sell cryptocurrencies, as well as other financial assets such as stocks, bonds, exchange-traded funds (ETFs), and other digital assets.

These platforms typically have reduced trading prices, but they also have fewer crypto-related features.

  • Cryptocurrency Exchanges

There are a plethora of cryptocurrency exchanges to pick from, each of which offers a different selection of cryptocurrencies, wallet storage, interest-bearing account alternatives, and other amenities. Many exchanges charge fees based on the value of the assets traded.

Comparing different platforms, take into account which cryptocurrencies are available, what fees they charge, their security features, storage and withdrawal choices, and any educational resources they may have available to you.

Step 2: Adding money to your account

After selecting your trading platform, the next step is to fund your account so that you can start making trades right away.

Most cryptocurrency exchanges allow users to purchase cryptocurrency using fiats (i.e., government-issued) currencies such as the US Dollar, the British Pound, or the Euro, which they may pay for using their debit or credit cards — but the exact method varies from platform to platform.

Credit card purchases of cryptocurrency are deemed hazardous, and as a result, some exchanges do not accept them.

Cryptocurrency transactions are also not permitted by some credit card companies. This is due to the fact that cryptocurrencies are extremely volatile, and it is not advised to take the chance of going into debt — or paying potentially hefty credit card transaction fees — in order to purchase specific assets.

Some systems will also allow ACH transactions and wire transfers in addition to credit cards. The payment methods that are accepted and the time it takes to deposit or withdraw money vary from platform to platform. Similarly, the time it takes for deposits to clear varies depending on the payment type used.

The cost of the service is a significant consideration. These include potential transaction costs for deposits and withdrawals, as well as trading fees. Fees will vary depending on the payment method and platform used, so it’s important to do your homework upfront.

Step 3: Making a buy or sell order

You can place an order through the web or mobile platform provided by your broker or exchange.

In order to purchase cryptocurrencies, you must first pick “buy,” then select the order type, input the number of cryptocurrencies you wish to purchase, and then confirm the order by clicking “confirm order.” Orders to “sell” follow the same procedure as “buy” orders.

There are a variety of different options for investing in cryptocurrency. Payment systems such as PayPal, Cash App, and Venmo, which allow users to purchase, trade, and hold cryptocurrencies, are examples of such services.

There are also the following types of investment vehicles to consider:

Bitcoin trusts: Shares in Bitcoin trusts can be purchased using a conventional brokerage account, much like stocks. Retail investors can gain exposure to cryptocurrency through the stock market through the use of these vehicles.

Bitcoin mutual funds: There are Bitcoin ETFs and Bitcoin mutual funds to pick from, as well as Bitcoin ETFs that track Bitcoin.

Blockchain stocks or exchange-traded funds (ETFs): You can also invest in cryptocurrency indirectly through blockchain companies that specialize in the technology that underpins cryptocurrency and cryptocurrency transactions.

Alternatively, you might invest in stocks or exchange-traded funds (ETFs) of companies that are utilizing blockchain technology.
The ideal investment option for you will be determined by your investment objectives as well as your risk tolerance.

What is the best way to keep cryptocurrency?

Once you have purchased bitcoin, you must store it securely in order to prevent it from being compromised or stolen.

Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies are typically housed in crypto wallets, which are either physical hardware or online software that are used to hold the private keys to your digital assets in a secure manner.

Some exchanges offer wallet services, making it simple for you to store your funds directly on the exchange’s site. Not all exchanges or brokers, on the other hand, will automatically give you wallet services.

There are a variety of wallet providers from which to pick. The terms “hot wallet” and “cold wallet” are used to describe two different types of wallets:

Hot Wallets: Using “hot wallets” to store your cryptographic assets refers to storing your private keys in a digital format that is accessible only through internet applications.

Storage with a cold wallet: Unlike hot wallets, cold wallets (also known as hardware wallets) rely on offline electronic equipment to store your private keys in a safe and secure manner. Generally speaking, cold wallets charge fees, but hot wallets do not charge fees.

Merits and Demerits of Investing in Cryptocurrency

Potential for high returnsVolatility risk
Offers diversificationIt may be hard to understand
No benchmark for valuation
Open scams and fraud

What Are Cryptocurrencies? (Summary)

A cryptocurrency (also known as a “crypto”) is a digital asset that may be traded and transferred without the need for a central monetary authority such as a government or a financial institution.

As opposed to fiat money, cryptocurrencies are created through the use of cryptographic processes that allow anyone to purchase, sell, and trade them with confidence.

The use of cryptocurrencies for transactional purposes is becoming increasingly popular, with many financial services firms already embracing them.

They may appear to provide the prospect of high returns, but a number of characteristics make them a risky financial investment.

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