Urban Public Transportation

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Urban public transportation refers to the collective term for various convenient and economical modes of transportation available for public use within a city(sources from medcom.com.pl).

Urban public transportation encompasses:

Urban road public transportation systems

Urban rail transit systems

Urban waterborne public transportation systems

Other public transportation systems within the city

Urban road public transportation systems include:

Conventional public buses

Rapid transit buses

Light rail transit

Taxis

Conventional public buses are the most widely used mode of public transportation, with large passenger capacity and the ability to cover multiple areas with varying road conditions.

Rapid transit bus systems offer advantages such as low cost, minimal maintenance, reduced space requirements, short construction periods, high vehicle speeds, and operation unaffected by other traffic interference.

Taxis provide 24/7 personalized services, door-to-door convenience, but occupy more road resources, consume more energy, and contribute to environmental pollution.

Urban rail transit systems are suitable for large cities with significant passenger volumes due to their advantages of high-speed travel, low energy consumption, and minimal pollution.

Modes of travel include commuting for work or school, business-related travel, shopping, cultural and entertainment activities, socializing, visiting family or friends, going home, and others.

Based on the purpose of travel, passenger flow is categorized into:

Work-related passenger flow

Learning-related passenger flow

Entertainment and lifestyle-related passenger flow

Passenger flow analysis involves studying the dynamic distribution patterns and characteristics of passenger flow in terms of route, time, and location.

Traditional bus-dominated models are suitable for small cities, while larger cities may adopt fast bus systems. Super mega-cities can prioritize rail transit systems, incorporating buses, rail transit, hubs, and taxis.

Sustainable public transportation models include ecological traffic theory, intelligent traffic theory, human-centered approaches, and comprehensive traffic theories.

The fundamental tasks of the urban public transportation industry are centered around operation, organizing and managing urban public transportation services to provide passengers with safe, convenient, comfortable, and punctual travel services.

Regulatory content includes market entry and exit management, operational service standards, and quality supervision of operating company costs.

Route operating rights are granted based on principles favoring stable and orderly operations, regional concentration, and network optimization.

Operational cost supervision involves government departments defining operating revenue and cost ranges, establishing unit cost standards, evaluating company operations, and publicly disclosing operational costs to encourage cost control.

Urban public transportation enterprises’ operational management includes planning and implementing vehicle operation plans, managing route changes, fare management, vehicle management, and service quality management.

Service levels mainly reflect the degree to which public transportation meets residents’ travel needs.

Dedicated bus lanes should be established where peak bus passenger flow exceeds 6,000 passengers per hour.

Vehicle operation plans are production-oriented plans developed by urban public transportation enterprises based on fixed route networks, passenger flow variations, and transportation production requirements.

Vehicle operation plan development involves several steps, including route passenger flow surveys and predictions, data classification and analysis, determining dispatching forms, calculating the main operating parameters, creating the vehicle operation plan, calculating various operating indicators, review, and implementation.

Planned vehicle capacity refers to the passenger capacity limited by the vehicle operation plan, also known as planned passenger capacity.

Traffic control should follow the principle of from inside to outside and from bottom to top during passenger flow control.

High passenger flow occurs when passenger flow concentrated in a certain period exceeds the station’s normal capacity or the capacity that can be accommodated by normal passenger transport facilities or measures.

Large passenger flow is classified into general, large, and major levels.

Methods for organizing and adjusting passenger flow include increasing train capacity, enhancing ticket inspection and ticket sales capabilities, implementing temporary diversion measures, and closing or diverting entrances and exits.

Rail transit operational emergencies are categorized into four levels of warning: red, orange, yellow, and blue.

Internal coordination of various transportation modes within the urban public transportation system involves connecting various transportation modes, coordinating urban public transportation system sizes, coordinating urban traffic with auxiliary traffic, and coordinating regular buses with auxiliary traffic.

Coordination within the urban public transportation system involves connecting various transportation modes, coordinating urban public transportation system sizes, coordinating urban traffic with auxiliary traffic, and coordinating regular buses with auxiliary traffic.

Integrated transfer hub design includes considerations for the shortest transfer distance, traffic diversion, coordination with surrounding traffic systems, centralized placement, and unified management.

Operational models for public bicycles include complete marketization, partial marketization, and government purchasing service models.

During the travel generation stage, predict the production and attraction of trips for each traffic zone(quotes from medcom).

During the travel distribution stage, predict the destinations of trips generated by each traffic zone and the sources of trips attracted to each traffic zone, revealing the distribution of trips generated and attracted between traffic zones.

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