Get one female pig, take it to mate with a male pig, and believe me, when I say you are on your way to 100s of pigs within a year, you’re in money!
Because pigs are so prolific (a female can give birth to up to 10 piglets at once) and its meat is one of the most consumed in the world, even in Nigeria.
Pig farming which is also known as piggery is a profit-making business idea that can pull cash to your bank account on a daily basis.
If you’re into pig farming in Nigeria, you can attest to the fact of never lacking money again.
The primary reason why you’ll make money from this business is due to the high demand for pork meat in Nigeria and the meat sells fast in the market.
Another reason to consider this business is that pigs reproduce in large numbers and grow super-fast.
Why Start Pig Farming In Nigeria? Quick Facts About Pigs
The domestic pigs, often called swine, hogs, or simply pigs when there is no need to distinguish them from other pigs, are domesticated large, even-toed ungulates.
They are variously considered a subspecies of the Eurasian boar or a distinct species.
Experts say a pig’s love of mud is not for the sake of filth or dirtiness. Pigs are actually very clean animals! Yes, you heard me right.
If they are given sufficient space, they do not soil the areas where they sleep or eat. Forget the saying that “sweating like a pig” – pigs can’t even sweat!
That must be the reason why they bathe in water or mud to cool off. It’s a matter of an act of survival.
- Lifespan: 15 – 20 years
- Scientific name: Sus scrofa domesticus
- Rank: Subspecies
- Higher classification: Wild boar
- Mass: Large Black pig: 320 – 360 kg, Bentheim Black Pied pig: 250 kg, Angeln Saddleback: 350 kg
- Height: Bentheim Black Pied pig: 75 cm, Angeln Saddleback: 92 cm
Just one pig can give birth to as much as 10 piglets at a time, making it one of the most reproducing farm animals in the world.
Piglets are also called shoat or farrow. A male pig is also known as Boar while the female is a Sow. A group of pigs is called a herd or drove.
I met one of the beneficiaries of the government program – NPOWER – she is in the category of N-Agro.
Among many things we discuss is the need to set up a farm after the program as an N-Agro beneficiary since that should be one of the motives of the program.
I gave suggestions on the different animal farms that can be set up and a pig farm was one of them. Yes, you should also check the reasons why having a goat farm in Nigeria is profitable.
I found out that not having a comprehensive idea of how to set up a farming business is one of her challenges.
So I decided to research more about pig farms and write about it.
Starting a Pig Farming Busines
The 5W formula has been proven to be very effective. The 5Ws is known as:
- Where? and
It helps any individual set up his business and not misses out on any steps and valuable information needed before venturing into the business.
The 5W is known as What? Why? Which? Where? and When?
What A Pig Farmer Should Know
As a farmer, you should know what you are most likely concentrating on.
As a pig farmer, you can raise and sell to the abattoir or you can raise, kill and sell the pork meat and you can as well decide to do both depending on what has great demand in your area.
Recently I discovered that pork meat is the most widely-eaten meat in the world, accounting for over 36% of the world.
It is followed by chicken meat and beef meat with about 35% and 22 % respectively.
Why Consider Pig Breeding?
Below are some reasons you should consider pig farming in Nigeria. Check out the following benefits:
- A Sow generally gives birth to piglets twice a year. Each time they gave birth to about 10 piglets (sometimes more).
- The gestation period is not more than 115 days. So, you can go for large scale commercial production within a very short time if you start with few pigs.
- Weather condition and geographical location of Nigeria is very suitable for pig farming.
- It is a very profitable business idea with a great ROI (Return of Investment) ratio.
- Pigs are known for their meat yield, which in terms of dressing percentage ranges from 65 – 80% in comparison to other livestock species whose dressing yields may not exceed 65%.
- The pig can utilize wide variety of feedstuff viz. grains, forages, damaged feeds and garbage and convert them into valuable nutritious meat.
- However, feeding of damaged grains, garbage, and other unbalanced rations may result in lower feed efficiency.
- They are prolific with shorter generation interval. A sow can be bred as early as 8-9 months of age and can farrow twice in a year. They produce 6-12 piglets in each farrowing.
- There is good demand from domestic as well as export market for pig products such as pork, bacon, ham, sausages, lard etc.
- Pigs manure is widely used as fertilizer for agriculture farms and fish ponds.
- Pigs store fat rapidly for which there is an increasing demand from poultry feed, soap, paints and other chemical industries.
As a pig farmer, you can sell a fully grown pig for as high as N75,000 depending on the weight.
Now, imagine if you can rear at least 100 pigs to maturity, you’ll be making nothing less than N3.5 Million from the sales.
If you can rear like 2,000 pigs a year, you will be making roughly N60 Million. Considering how fast pigs reproduce, it won’t be hard to rear 100 pigs in a year.
Which Pig Breeds Should You Keep?
Now, I will talk about the “Which?” question to consider when starting a pig farm in Nigeria.
This section will address the various breeds available and selection.
The most common pig breeds for commercial pig farming in Nigeria are the Yorkshire, Landrace, Hampshire, Duroc breeds and their crosses.
These breeds produce lean meat combined with efficient feed conversion.
Compared to local pig breeds, these commercial breeds have good resistance to diseases and suffer less from hot weather and low-quality feed.
You can choose both local and hybrid piglets. For commercial purpose crossbreed of exotic and local breeds are very suitable.
These types of crossbreed pigs consume more feed, grow faster and become healthier than other available breeds.
There are various types of breeds available. So, it might difficult for you to select the right breed for your pig farming business.
Try to purchase pregnant pigs. If it is not available then good quality piglets are OK.
When purchasing piglets, ask the producer about their parents and their health information, production history and other records.
Ask the producer if the pig has been vaccinated and dewormed or not. If not, ask him to do it urgently.
Doing proper research on the pigs to be purchased will save you lots of cash. When you buy piglets with untraceable history, you’ll lose a lot of money.
It is advisable to start with a small number of piglets and then increase gradually.
This way you’ll be able to learn the nook and cranny of pig farming business and eventually, your risk will be minimal.
If you’re starting a small scale pig farming business, you can employ at least 3 persons to help you out in cleaning the pigs and pens as well as feeding them on a regular basis.
Where Should You Raise Pigs?
Next is the location of your farm. Selecting suitable farmland is very important. The size or area of the land will depend on the scale of your pig farming business.
The more pigs you want to raise, the more land will be required.
Divide the land into several plots. This will help you to raise different aged pigs separately. A calm and quiet place will be very effective.
While selecting land for pig farming business in Nigeria, keep in mind some necessary facilities:
- Sufficient supply of fresh and clean water in the farm area. It would be better if there is a pond, lake or other water sources available.
- The selected area will be very near to the market.
- Good transportation systems.
- Far from the residential area.
- Foods are available near the farmland.
- Availability of all types of veterinary service.
If you are new to pig farming in Nigeria, then a plot of land wouldn’t be bad for a start.
For large scale pig farming business, big farmland will be worthwhile because it will enable the pigs to graze in the open and then retire to the pen where they’ll continue feeding and playing.
In the pig farming business, the land is your primary investment. Once you can secure pig farmland, you’re halfway near a successful business empire.
Getting farmland in rural areas can save you lots of money. It’s best you do in-depth research regarding getting farmland for this business.
Once the land is set, you can be transporting your goods to a nearby town.
Sometimes, butchers may even come to your farm to buy, thus saving you cost for transportation.
Getting large farmland favors the growth of pigs because the pigs will be able to graze around and also exercise their bodies by playing.
Setting up a big pen is necessary if you don’t want the pigs to injure themselves.
A well-equipped and spacious pen can save you lots of money which would have been spent on treating diseases.
A proper drainage system is essential to avoid stagnation of water around the pen which could attract disease vectors.
To prevent your pigs from getting dirty, building a water pool where they’ll play, swim and cool themselves will be necessary.
This concept is essential for their wellbeing. Whatever promotes cleanliness and healthy living to your pigs should be properly carried out.
Pigs can be raised both indoors and in individual stalls, pens or barns. Housing is very important for commercial pig farming in Nigeria.
A good house can keep them healthy, productive and free from adverse climate and all types of predators.
Housing also helps the pigs to keep them warm during the winter season and cold temperatures. It also helps them to keep moderate temperatures during excessive heat in the summer season.
In case of raising the pigs outdoor, they need a special type of shelter during hot and cold weather.
Keep sufficient space for feeding and bedding inside the house. Pigs generally like dry beds. So, always try to keep the house and bed dry.
Also, make a suitable system for protection from extreme humidity, heat, and cold.
For an indoor pig farming systems, make proper and sufficient ventilation systems in the house. Ensure sufficient flow of fresh air and light inside the house.
Make proper drainage inside the house to keep the house dry. A good sanitation system inside the house is very important for pig farming.
Make housing with good sanitation facilities so that you can easily clean the house.
Feeding good quality, fresh and nutritious food can make your pigs healthier and ensure proper growth.
The sole aim of feeding pigs is to make them market-ready, so feeding should be properly done.
Good food also helps to prevent various types of diseases.
You can feed your pigs almost everything including roughage, kitchen garbage, agricultural waste, stalk from beverage companies etc.
For commercial production, you have to feed your pigs at least twice a day.
Generally, pigs eat both grains and meat. You can also feed your pigs with cooked table scraps, rice, and vegetables.
Among all the food elements, corn is the most common food of pigs. Soybeans or cooked meat can be a great source of protein for the pigs.
Pigs will grow faster if you can make necessary nutrition elements, vitamins, and other supplements readily available.
Piglets require more protein than mature pigs. You can buy ready-made pig food from the market or make your own mixture prepared at home.
Along with providing nutritious and fresh food, always serve them a sufficient amount of clean and fresh water. Pigs require a huge amount of water daily.
Pig farming in Nigeria can be a great business opportunity for unemployed educated people, women and for the people who want to raise pigs commercially.
You can start raising pigs both domestically and commercially and you can start now. Do not forget that writing a simple business plan for your goat business will help you along the way.
Once the capital is ready, apply what you have gathered here and you are good to go. The breeding process of pigs is easy and simple.
Generally, the gestation period of pigs is not more than 115 days. Sow gives birth to piglets twice a year, and produces more than 10 kids each time.
After delivery, the kids will be feed on breast milk for their first nine weeks of age. After completing the grower stage of piglets, the Sow becomes suitable for mating again.
Pork meat and other products off pig are needed always so the demand is all season. Just as there’s huge market for poultry farming, there is also a good market for pig meat.
You can sell your products in your local market or the international market. China is the world’s largest pig meat consumers.
Conclusion on Pig Farming In Nigeria
Pig meat is tasty, nutritious and has a great global popularity.
Pig farming is not yet crowded as poultry or fish farming. I hope you really find this article interesting and informative.
If you are confident that pig farming will work for you, it is important you take advantage of the fact that it’s not being a crowded business now and start taking action as soon as possible.
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